Андрій Діденко: «Присяжні» чи все ж такі – «ківали»?

 
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Sat, 2013-11-02 15:04

«Настоящая сенсация произошла в нашей стране несколько дней тому назад. Суд присяжных оправдал человека.

Заречный районный суд города Сумы признал обвиняемого в убийстве 21-летнего Александра Бондаренко невиновным, и постановил выпустить его на свободу прямо в зале суда.

Нужно подчеркнуть особо, что в этой истории присутствует очень важная деталь: суд принимал решение с учетом мнения присяжных, институт которых введен лишь недавно
» – написав у своєї статті “Есть ли польза от присяжных?” журналіст Юрій Луканов.

Насправді це дійсно сенсація, але лише в тому розумінні, що в даному випадку не спрацював каральний механізм корупційної системи українського «кривосуддя»: слідство – прокуратура – суд.

Подивіться вироки судів по обвинуваченню в тяжких, особливо тяжких злочинах. Особливо по вбивствах. В кожній зі справ позиція слідства, прокуратури і суду збігається в унісон і майже завжди трансформується в обвинувальний вирок, а в подальшому – в рішення апеляційної і касаційних інстанцій.

Багацько з таких вироків обвинувачення ґрунтується на доказах, отриманих із суттєвим порушенням правових норм, із застосуванням катувань. На мій погляд як експерта, який вивчає кримінальні справи і скарги засуджених, біля десяти відсотків засуджених в Україні – засуджені за сумнівними вироками. У частині таких вироків покарання не пропорційне до тяжкості скоєного злочину, а левова частка осіб – взагалі відбувають покарання без вини. В тому числі і вироки у справах засуджених до довічного терміну позбавлення волі, зокрема, справах Олександра Рафальського, Максима Орлова, Володимира Панасенка, Мераба Суслова та багатьох інших – м’яко кажучи, сумнівні на предмет справедливості довічного покарання.

Докладніше: http://khpg.org/index.php?id=1373628141

Щодо нововведеної у нашій державі української моделі «суду присяжних», яка передбачена в новому КПК, то, як на мій погляд, таку модель в українських реаліях взагалі не можна назвати судом присяжних. Практикуючі юристи завжди знають, що досвідчений суддя (та ще й з напарником – також суддею) у нарадчій кімнаті, вживаючи численні юридичні терміни, завжди переконають трьох інших людей-«присяжних», які не мають юридичної освіти. Така модель є не чим іншим, як поверненням у радянське минуле суду “народних засідателів” (у народі – «ківал»).

Звичайно, ми враховуємо досвід європейських країн і те, що судові процеси в континентальній Європі проводяться за зразком інквізиції, коли судді відіграють активну роль у  судовому процесі. І нібито саме така модель суду присяжних була започаткована українським законодавцем як позитивна практика європейського суду присяжних. Проте ми чудово знаємо, хто є судді в нашій країні, які (за якістю і фаховістю) виносяться судові рішення, як відбувається змагальність процесу, і знаємо, як набирається склад суду, коли потрібно ухвалити рішення «на замовлення». Тому приклад Олександра Бондаренка, про якого згадав Юрій Луканов, на сьогодні є лише винятком.

Насправді суддям дуже важко виносити подібні  рішення через тиск з боку прокуратури. Навіть і в цій справі, що скінчилася виправдувальним вироком, цікаво буде відстежити подальші дії щодо вжитих (або не вжитих) державою заходів щодо притягнення до відповідальності осіб, що катували і вибивали з юнака зізнання. І, відповідно, того прокурора, що затвердив обвинувачення і підтримував його в суді, не зважаючи на переконливі, як з’ясував в подальшому суд, докази невинуватості особи. Невже той прокурор не розумів, що позиція прокуратури нікчемна і докази захисту щодо порушень прав людини є переконливими? Чому прокурор не відмовився від підтримання обвинувачення в суді, коли з’ясувалося, що особа не винна? Чому прокурор не ініціював прокурорське реагування за фактами катування і жорстокого поводження під час слідства з метою отримання зізнання – як особа, що здійснює нагляд за законністю під час досудового слідства? Але це вже питання, напевно, риторичні.

Тому не треба дурити народ, що в Україні нібито існує суд присяжних, бо навіть Українська Конституція наголошує: «Стаття 127. Правосуддя здійснюють професійні судді та, у визначених законом випадках, народні засідателі і присяжні». Так от «народні засідателі» та «ківали» є, а присяжних досі немає.

Источник: 
Автор: 
Андрій Діденко

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